Peyvên biyanî di tirkî de

 

husein

Husein Muhammed

 

Kurtegotinek

Di qonaxa avakirina ferhengeke etîmolojî ya zimanê kurdî de gelek caran hatime rexnekirin ku “hemû peyvên kurdî wek biyanî” diyar dikim. Ev ne rast e lê rast e ku piraniya peyvên kurdî – wek yên her zimanekî din jî – ji zimanên din hatine. Piraniya peyvên hemû zimanan bi eslê xwe ne ji wî zimanî ne.

Bo diyarkirina vê rastiyê, ez ê ferhengokeke etîmolojî ya peyvên tirkî bikim. Herwiha bi heman awayî min ferhengokeke etîmolojî ya peyvên erebî jî amade kiriye. Bi vê dixwazim bidim diyarkirin ku di her zimanî de peyvên biyanî hene û gelek in.

Di vê lîsteya xwe ya kurt de tenê hin peyvên tirkî yên ji zimanên din wergirtî pêşkêş dikim. Mebesta min ne ew e ku lîsteyeke temam pêşkêş bikim: peyvên biyanî yên di tirkî de ne tenê ev in. Lê ev wek nimûne hatine diyarkirin. Giranî li ser peyvên ji zimanên îranî ye ji ber ku yên erebî û ewropî tên zanîn ku di tirkî de biyanî ne lê yên îranî bi qasî ku hewce ye nayên zanîn.

Min bi piranî peyvên wisa bijartine ku piraniya xwendevanan texmîn dikin ku bi eslê xwe tirkî ne. Min peyvên ku her kes dizane bi eslê xwe erebî yan jî ewropî ne (wek bank, radyo, muzîk, televizyon, Internet…), min li derveyî vê lîsteyê hiştine.

Li çepê peyva tirkî hatiye diyarkirin, li navê zimanê ku jê hatiye û li rastê jî maneya peyvê bi kurdî. Peyva “îranî” di beşa “Ji” de tê wê maneyê ku ew peyv ji zimanekî îranî (kurdî, farisî, pehlewî, hexamenişî, avestayî…) hatiye wergirtin. Di gelek ferhengan de li cihê “îranî” peyva “farisî” tê danîn. Ev di rewşa hin peyvan de rast e lê ne di hemûyan de. Gelek caran ne mimkin e mirov bê guman bizane ka peyv ji kîjan zimanê îranî hatiye wergirtin. Loma min peyva ”îranî” çêtir dît.

Carinan ji yekê zêdetir alternatîv hene ku peyv ji kîjan zimanî ye, hingê ew bo nimûne wiha hatiye diyarkirin: asker ji latînî yan îranî. Carinan jî tirkî ew peyv ji zimanekî din wergirtiye lê wî zimanî bi xwe jî ji zimanekî din wergirtiye. Hingê ew bo nimûne wiha hatiye diyarkirin: adam ji erebî ji îbranî.

Hin caran parçeyek ji peyvê ji zimanekî ye û parçeya din ji zimanekî din e, hingê ew bi ”-” ji hev hatine cudakirin, bo nimûne: cüz-dan ji erebî-îranî (tê wê maneyê ku ”cüz” ji erebî û ”dan” ji îranî ye). Carinan parçeyek ji peyvê ji tirkî ye lê parçeyeke din ji zimanekî din e. Hingê parçeya ji tirkî di kevanê (…) de ye, bo nimûne: çaydan(lık) ji îranî tê wê maneyê ku ” çaydan” ji îranî ye lê ”lık” ji tirkî bi xwe ye. (Türk)iye ji erebî diyar dike ku peyva ”Türk” ji tirkî ye lê ”iye” ji erebî ye.

Eger ji wergera kurdî diyar nebe ku peyva tirkî ji îranî ye, hingê li beşa ”Ji” de serekaniya yan hevreha wê peyvê hatiye diyarkirin. Bo nimûne damat ji îranî (F: damad = zava).

 

 

Kurtkirin

Ak = akadî

Ar = aramî

Av = avestayî

E = erebî

F = farisî

K = kurmancî

P = pehlewî

S = soranî

Sûm = sûmerî

Z = zazakî

 

Tirkî                                         Ji                                                     Wate
 
A
aba                                                   erebî ji aramî                                eba
adam                                               erebî ji îbranî                                mêr, zelam, zilam
ağustos                                          yûnanî ji latînî                              tebax, meha 8em
ahır                                                  îranî                                                 axur, gov
akıl                                                   erebî                                               hiş, aqil
alıç                                                    îranî                                                 herûk, hilûk
ambar                                             îranî                                                 embar
Anadolu                                         yûnanî                                            Anadol
Ankara                                            yûnanî                                            Enqere
aptal                                                erebî                                               bêhiş, dîn, bêaqil (evdal)
armut                                              îranî (F: emrûd)                           hirmî, hirmîk
asker                                               latînî yan jî erebî ji îranî (ji l-eşker) esker, leşker
aşk                                                   erebî                                               evîn, eşq
ateş                                                 îranî (F: ateş, Av: atexş)           agir
ayna                                                îranî                                                 eynik, eyne, awêne, neyknik, mirêk, qotîk
azar                                                  îranî                                                 azar, ezyet
 
B
bacak                                              îranî (F: paçê   )                           ling
badem                                            îranî (F: badam)                          bahîv, behîv
bağ                                                   îranî                                                 bax, baxçe, rez
bağış                                                îranî                                                 bexş
bahane                                           îranî                                                 bihane, hêcet
bahar                                              îranî                                                 bihar
baharat                                          erebî                                               biharat
bahçe                                              îranî                                                 baxçe
bakkal                                             erebî                                               beqal, dikandar
bay                                                   îranî (beg)                                     mêr, zelam
bayan                                              îranî (beg)                                     xanim, jin
bayram                                           îranî (P: pethram = cejn)         cejn, şahî
bazı                                                  erebî                                               hin, hinek, hindek
bedava                                           îranî (F: bad-aver= bayî înayî/aniyî) belaş, bê pare
bela                                                 erebî                                               bela
belkî                                                îranî                                                 belkî
bey                                                  îranî (beg)                                     beg; birêz
bina                                                 erebî                                               avahî
borç                                                 îranî (sogdî: purç)                       deyn, qerz
börek                                              îranî (F: bûrek)                            borek, kade
bulgur                                             îranî (F: berğol / borğol)          savar
bülbül                                             erebî                                               bilbil
Bülent                                             îranî                                                 Bilind, navekî mêran e
 
C
cacık                                                îranî (K: jajî)                                  xiyarmast
cadde                                              erebî ji îranî (Av: yatim)           cade
cam                                                  îranî                                                 cam, şûşe
can                                                   îranî                                                 can, giyan, derûn, ruh
cep                                                   erebî                                               berîk, cêb
cevap                                              erebî                                               bersiv, cewab, cab
ceviz                                                erebî ji îranî (P: gewz)              gûz
ciğer                                                îranî                                                 ceger, ciger
cilt                                                    erebî                                               cild, berg
cop                                                   îranî                                                 çîv, şiv, çov
coş                                                   îranî                                                 coş, zewq
cömert                                           îranî                                                 camêr, ciwanmêr
cuma                                               erebî                                               în, înî, cum’e
cüce                                                 îranî                                                 çûçelk, çûk, çûçik, çivîk
cüz-dan                                          erebî-îranî                                     cizdan(k), çizdan(k)
 
Ç
çabuk                                              îranî (F: çabûk)                            beza, bilez
çadir                                                îranî                                                 çadir, kûn, xîvet
çamaşır                                           îranî (F: came = cil, şûr-=şo-/ şûştin) cilên rêvin / qirêjî
çanta                                               îranî                                                 çante, çente
çare                                                 îranî                                                 çare, hel
çarşamba                                       îranî                                                 çarşem(b)
çarşaf                                              îranî (çar=çadir/perde, şef=şev) çarşev
çarşı                                                 îranî (çar = 4, sû/sûk=rê)         bazar, çarşî, sûk
çay                                                   îranî ji çînî                                      çay, ça
çaydan(lık)                                    îranî                                                 çaydank
çayhane                                         îranî                                                 çayxane
çekiç                                                îranî                                                 çekûç
çember                                          îranî                                                 çember
çeper                                              îranî                                                 çeper
çift                                                    îranî (F: coft)                                cot
çimento                                         îtalî                                                   çîmento, seb, gêç
çirkin                                               îranî (F: çirkîn)                              kirêt, kirh, pîs
çınar                                                îranî                                                 çinar (dar)
çoban                                              îranî (F: çûban)                            şivan
çorap                                               îranî / erebî                                   gore
çorba                                               îranî                                                 şorbe
çünkü                                              îranî                                                 çunkî, ji ber ku
 
D
daima                                              erebî                                               herdem (daîm, daîmen)
damat                                             îranî (F: damad)                          zava
davet                                              erebî                                               vexwandin, de’wet
derbeder                                       îranî                                                 derbider
dere                                                îranî (F: derê)                               gelî, newal, nihal, dol
der-hal                                           îranî-erebî (F: di … de E: hal)  di cih de, bi lez, tavilê
ders                                                 erebî                                               ders, xwandin
ders-hane                                     erebî-îranî                                     dersxane, odeya dersê
dert                                                 îranî                                                 derd
derviş                                              îranî                                                 derwêş
destan                                            îranî                                                 dastan, destan
destek                                            îranî (destik)                                 destek
dev                                                  îranî                                                 dêw
devam                                            erebî                                               dewam
devlet                                             erebî ji aramî                                dewlet
diğer                                                îranî (F: dîger K: dîtir)                din, dî, dîtir
dilber                                              îranî                                                 dilber
divan                                               îranî                                                 dîwan
dolap                                               îranî ji aramî ji akadî                   dolab
domates                                        spanî                                               bacansork, firingî
dost                                                 îranî                                                 dost, heval
dua                                                  erebî                                               dua, lava
duvar                                              îranî                                                 dîwar
dürüst                                             îranî                                                 durist
düşman                                          îranî                                                 dijmin, dujmin
 
E
efsane                                            îranî                                                 efsane
eğer                                                 îranî                                                 eger, heke
elbise                                              erebî                                               cil, libas
emlak                                              erebî                                               milk, erd (pirrjimar)
encümen                                       îranî                                                 encumen, meclis
engel                                               îranî (F: engel)                                                          asteng, rêgirî
enginar                                           yûnanî                                            kengir, kereng
erik                                                  îranî                                                 herûk, hilûk
esir                                                   erebî                                               girtî, êxsîr, dîl
eylül                                                erebî ji aramî ji akadî                 îlon, eylûl, meha 9em
ezber                                              îranî (F: ez ber)                            ji ber (ji bîra xwe ve)
 
F
fakir                                                 erebî                                               feqîr, jar, belengaz, perîşan
fener                                               yûnanî                                            fener, fanos
fincan                                              erebî ji îranî                                  fincan, kûp
fişek                                                îranî                                                 fîşek, gulle, telqe
 
 
 
G
gazete                                            îtalî                                                   rojname
gül                                                    îranî                                                 gul
günah                                             îranî                                                 guneh
 
H
hafta                                               îranî                                                 hefte, heftî (heyama 7 rojan)
hasta                                               îranî (F: xeste)                                                          nesax, nexweş, xeste
hava                                                îranî                                                 hewa
hayat                                               erebî                                               jiyan (heyat)
hayır (1)                                         erebî (xeyr: xêr)                         nexêr, na, ne
hayır (2)                                         erebî                                               xêr
hayvan                                           erebî                                               heywan
hazine                                             erebî                                               xezîne, gencîne
haziran                                           erebî                                               xezîran, hezîran, pûşber, meha 6em
hem … hem …                              îranî                                                 hem … hem …, … jî û … jî
hemen                                           îranî (heman dem)                    di cih de, bi lez, hemen
hemşe(h)ri                                   îranî                                                 hemşe(h)rî, kesên ji eynî bajarî
hemşîre                                         îranî (F: hemşîre=hevşîr, xwişk) hemşîre
henüz                                             îranî (F: henûz)                            hê, hê jî, hîna, hîna jî, hêşta
her                                                   îranî                                                 her (hemû)
herkes                                            îranî                                                 her kes
hır(sız)                                            erebî (xeyr: xêr)                         diz (“bêxêr”)
hıyar                                                îranî                                                 xiyar
hiç                                                    îranî                                                 hîç, qet
hoca                                                îranî (F: x[v]acê)                         xoce, birêz, hêja, seyda, mela
hoş                                                   îranî                                                 xweş
hükümet                                       erebî                                               hikûmet
 
İ
ihtiyar                                             erebî                                               pîr, ixtiyar
ilaç                                                    erebî                                               derman
incîr                                                  îranî (F: encîr)                              hejîr, hêjîr
insan                                               erebî                                               mirov, meriv, insan
inşaat                                              erebî                                               avakirin
isim                                                  erebî                                               nav (ism)
İstanbul                                          yûnanî ([Kon]stantînopolis)   Stembol, Stenbol
işaret                                               erebî                                               îşaret
işkence                                           îranî                                                 şkence (têkilî “şkandin“ê)
 
K
kadın                                               îranî (xatûn)                                 jin
kalem                                              erebî ji yûnanî                             qelem, pênûs
kalp                                                  erebî                                               dil (qelb)
kanepe                                           fransî                                               qenepe, sofa
kasım                                              erebî                                               meha 11em
kayıt                                                erebî                                               qeyd, tomar, sicil
kedi                                                 îranî                                                 kitik, pisîk, pişîk
kelime                                            erebî                                               peyv, gotin, kelîme
kemer                                             îranî                                                 kemer
kenar                                              îranî                                                 kinar, rex, qirax
kenger                                            îranî                                                 kengir, kereng
kent                                                 îranî (sekayî: kentha)                bajar
kere                                                 erebî                                               car
kervan                                            îranî ji akadî                                  karwan
kırmızı                                             îranî ji sanskrîtî                            sor
ki                                                       îranî                                                 ku (peyvika bihevvegirêdana hevokan)
kiler                                                 yûnanî ji latînî                              bindav, bodrûm, embar
kilit                                                   îranî ji yûnanî                               kilîl, kilîd
kin                                                    îranî                                                 kîn, kerb
kitap                                                erebî                                               kitêb, pirtûk
koca                                                 îranî (binere ”hoca” li jortir)   mêr, zelam, zilam
köfte                                               îranî (F: kûfte=kutayî)              kutilk, kifte
köse                                                îranî                                                 kose, bêrih yan kêmrih
köşk                                                 îranî                                                 koşk, seray, qesr, dîwan
köşe                                                îranî                                                 goşe, kujî
kürsü                                               E ji Ar ji Ak ji Sûm                        kursî
 
L
lahana                                             yûnanî                                            kelemî
lale                                                   îranî                                                 lale, alale
lehçe                                               erebî                                               lehce, zarava, devok
leke                                                 îranî                                                 leke, teqme, lewt
leş                                                    îranî                                                 leş, laş
leşker                                              îranî                                                 leşker, esker, sipa, serbaz
limon                                               îranî ji sanskrîtî                            lîmon, leymûn
 
 
M
maalesef                                       erebî                                               mixabin, heyf e ku
madde                                            erebî ji îranî                                  made, madde
mal, maliyet                                 erebî                                               maliyet, mal, saman
marangoz                                      yûnanî                                            necar, dartiraş
mart                                                yûnanî ji latînî                              adar, meha 3yem
masa                                               latînî                                                mase, mêze
mavi                                                erebî (mawî: avî)                        şîn (reng)
maydanoz                                     erebî ji yûnanî                             kerefs, mexdenoz, bexdenoz
mayıs                                              yûnanî ji latînî                              gulan, meha 5em
maymun                                        erebî ji yûnanî                             meymûn
meğer                                             îranî                                                 meger, eger na
mektup                                          erebî                                               name
melek                                             erebî ji îbranî                                melek, milyaket, firîşte
memleket                                     erebî                                               war, welat, memleket
menekşe                                       îranî                                                 binefş
merdivan                                       îranî (F: nerdevan)                     derece, pêpelûk; pêstirk
merhem/melhem                     îranî ji erebî ji yûnanî                melhem, merhem
mert                                                îranî                                                 mêr; camêr; xweşmêr
mey                                                 îranî                                                 mey, bade, şerab
meydan                                         erebî ji îranî                                  meydan
meyhane                                       îranî                                                 meyxane
meyve                                            îranî                                                 mêwe, meywe, fêkî
mıh                                                  îranî                                                 mîx, bizmar
mum                                               îranî                                                 mûm, find, şemal, çira
murder                                           îranî                                                 mirar, kelex
muz                                                 erebî ji sanskrîtî                          mûz
müjde                                             îranî                                                 mizgînî, mijde
mülk                                                erebî                                               milk
 
N
namaz                                             îranî                                                 nivêj, nimêj
nar                                                   îranî                                                 hinar
nargîle                                            îranî ji sanskrîtî                            nargile
naz, nazdar, nazenîn                 îranî                                                 naz, nazdar, nazenîn
ne … ne …                                      îranî                                                 ne … ne … (jî)
nehir                                               erebî                                               çem, robar (> kurdî nehal/newal)
nem                                                 îranî                                                 nêm, şilî, ritûbat
nergis                                              îranî ji yûnanî                               nêrgiz
nesrîn                                             îranî                                                 nesrîn (gulek, navekî jinan)
neşter                                             îranî                                                 nişter
nevruz                                            îranî                                                 nevroz, newroz
ney                                                  îranî                                                 ney
nilüfer                                             îranî ji sanskrîtî                            nîlûfer
nisan                                               E ji îbranî/Ar ji Ak ji Sûm          nîsan, meha 4em
nişan                                               îranî                                                 nîşan
 
O
oruç                                                 îranî                                                 rojî
 
P
paha                                                îranî                                                 biha, nirx, qîmet, fiyet
pamuk                                            îranî (P: pembuk)                       pembû
para                                                 îranî                                                 pare, pere
parça                                               îranî                                                 parçe, perçe
paşa                                                 îranî                                                 paşa
patlıcan                                          îranî ji sanskrîtî                            bacan(reşk)
pazar                                               îranî                                                 bazar; yekşem
peçe                                                îranî                                                 paçe, pate, pêçik, pêçek
pembe                                           îranî (K: pembû, F: penbe)     pembe, pembeyî, rengê pîvazî
pencere                                         îranî                                                 pencere
perde                                              îranî                                                 perde
peri                                                  îranî                                                 perî
perişand                                        îranî                                                 perîşan
perşembe                                     îranî                                                 pêncşem(b)
peşin                                               îranî                                                 pêşîn, pêşî
peygamber                                   îranî                                                 pêxember
peynir                                             îranî                                                 penîr, pênîr
pirinç                                               îranî ji sanskrîtî                            birinc
pişman                                           îranî                                                 peşîman, poşman
piyaz                                                îranî (F/S: piyaz)                          pîvaz
polat                                                îranî                                                 pola, pîla, polat
pul                                                    îranî ji yûnanî                               pûl
 
 
R
rehber                                            îranî                                                 rêber
rençber                                          îranî                                                 rêncber, rencber, kedkar
rende                                              îranî                                                 rende
renk                                                 îranî                                                 reng
rüzgâr                                             îranî (K: rojgar)                            ba, hewa
 
S
sabah                                              erebî                                               sibe, spêde, sihar, destpêka rojê
sahip                                               erebî                                               xwedî, xudan, xweyî
sahte                                               îranî                                                 sexte, saxte, qelp
salı                                                    erebî                                               sêşem(b)
sandalye                                        erebî ji latînî                                 kursî
sanki                                                îranî (F: san = wek kî=ku)        wek ku, heçku
saray                                               îranî                                                 seray, koşk, qesr
sarhoş                                             îranî                                                 serxweş
saz                                                    îranî                                                 saz (amûreke muzîkê)
sebze                                              îranî (F: sebz=şîn/hêşîn)          sebze, nebat, riwek
sepet                                              îranî (F: seped, sebed)             selik, zembîl, sepet
serbest                                           îranî                                                 serbest
sert                                                  îranî (F: serd=sar)                       req, hişk
sincap                                             îranî yan erebî (F/E: sincab)   sivore, sihorî, simorî
sipariş                                             îranî (K: spartin)                          sipariş
siyah                                                îranî (F: siyah, Z: siya)               reş
sofa                                                 inglîzî ji erebî ji aramî                qenepe, sofa
sütun                                              îranî                                                 stûn
süvari                                              îranî                                                 siwar, siwarî
 
Ş
şahin                                               îranî                                                 eylo, helo, şahîn, qertel
şair                                                   erebî                                               helbestvan, şair
şeftali                                              îranî (F: şeftalû)                          xox
şehir                                                îranî (F:şehr, S: şar, Z: şar = xelk)                      bajar
şeker                                               îranî ji sanskrîtî                            şekir
şiir                                                    erebî                                               helbest, şiir
şirin                                                  îranî                                                 şîrîn
şişe                                                  îranî ji Ar ji Ak ji misirya kevn şûşe
şubat                                               erebî ji îbrî ji akadî                      sibat, şibat, meha duyem
 
T
tabi                                                  erebî                                               helbet (tabî, teb’en)
taç                                                    erebî ji îranî                                  tac
tahra                                               îranî (F: dahrê, Z: dariye)         das
taht                                                  îranî                                                 text
tahta                                               îranî                                                 texte, dep, dar
tamam                                            erebî                                               temam
tane                                                 îranî (S: dane, F: danê)             lib, heb, dane, dene
tarçın                                               îranî (“dara çînî”)                        darçîn
tava                                                 îranî                                                 tavik, tawe
taze                                                 îranî                                                 taze, teze
tebeşir                                            îranî ji sanskrîtî                            tebeşîr
tekrar                                              erebî                                               dubare, tekrar
tembel                                           îranî                                                 tembel, tiral, arode, keslan
temel                                              yûnanî                                            bingeh
temiz                                               erebî                                               paqij, pak, bijûn
temmuz                                         E ji îbrî/Ar ji Ak ji Sûm               tîrmeh, temûz, meha 7em
teneke                                           îranî (ji “tenik”)                           teneke
terazi                                               îranî                                                 terazû, terazî
terk                                                  erebî                                               terk
terzi                                                 îranî                                                 derzî, terzî, xeyat, cildirû
teşekkür                                        erebî                                               spas; spasî
torba                                               îranî (F: tobrê)                                                          tûr, tûrik, torbe
traş                                                  îranî                                                 tiraşîn
turşu                                               îranî (ji tirş)                                   tirşî
tüfek                                               îranî                                                 tifek, tifeng
(Türk)iye                                        erebî                                               Tirkiye
 
 
Ü
ümit                                                 îranî                                                 hêvî, umêd
üstad/üstat                                  îranî                                                 hosta, hoste
 
V
vahşi                                                erebî ji îranî                                  wehşî; beyar, dêm
ve                                                     erebî                                               û, herwiha
ve-ya                                               erebî-îranî                                     yan jî
viran                                                îranî                                                 wêran
ya                                                     îranî                                                 yan, an, ya
yahut                                              îranî (F: ya=yan xûd=xwe)      yan jî
yard
 
Y
yabancı                                           îranî (F: biyaban / yaban = çol)                           biyanî
yabani                                             îranî (F: biyaban / yaban = çol)                           beyar, çolî, dêmî
yardım                                            îranî (F: yarî = harî=harîkarî=arîkarî = alîkarî) alîkar
 
Z
zaman                                             îranî/erebî                                     dem, zeman
zambak                                          erebî ji îranî                                  sosin, zembeq
zan(etmek)                                  erebî                                               texmîn kirin, bawer kirin
zehir                                                îranî                                                 jehr
zengin                                             îranî                                                 zengîn
zeytin                                              erebî                                               zeytûn
zincir                                                îranî                                                 zincîr
zindan                                             îranî                                                 zindan, hefs, girtîxane, girtîgeh
zinhar                                              îranî                                                 hewar, zînhar
ziraat                                               erebî                                               zîraet, çandin
zor                                                    îranî                                                 zor, zehmet
zurna                                               îranî                                                 zirna, zirne

 

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