Etîmolojiya peyvên erebî

 

husein

Husein Muhammed

 

Kurtegotinek

Di qonaxa avakirina ferhengeke etîmolojî ya zimanê kurdî de gelek caran hatime rexnekirin ku “hemû peyvên kurdî wek biyanî” diyar dikim. Ev ne rast e lê rast e ku piraniya peyvên kurdî – wek yên gelek zimanên din jî – ji zimanên din hatine. Piraniya peyvên hemû zimanan bi eslê xwe ne ji wî zimanî ne.

Bo diyarkirina vê rastiyê, ez ê ferhengokeke etîmolojî ya peyvên erebî û herwiha bi heman awayî ferhengokeke etîmolojî ya peyvên tirkî jî amade bikin. Bi vê dixwazim bidim diyarkirin ku di her zimanî de peyvên biyanî hene û gelek in.

Di vê lîsteya xwe ya kurt de tenê hin peyvên erebî yên ji zimanên din wergirtî pêşkêş dikim. Mebesta min ne ew e ku lîsteyeke temam pêşkêş bikim: peyvên biyanî yên di erebî de ne tenê ev in. Lê ev wek nimûne hatine diyarkirin. Pirraniya wan peyvan bi rêya erebî yan jî bi rêyeke din ketine kurdî jî.

Bi taybetî min peyvên têkilî dîn û diyanetê bijartine daku diyar bikim ku ew jî mîratê hemû mirovatiyê ne, ne tenê erebî ne. Min bi piranî peyvên wisa bijartine ku piraniya xwendevanan texmîn dikin ku bi eslê xwe erebî ne. Min peyvên ku her kes dizane ne bi eslê xwe erebî ne (wek bank, radyo, muzîk, televizyon, Internet…), min li derveyî vê lîsteyê hiştine.

Li çepê peyva erebî hatine diyarkirin, li navê zimanê ku jê hatiye û li rastê jî maneya peyvê bi kurdî. Peyva “îranî” di beşa “Ji” de tê wê maneyê ku ew peyv ji zimanekî îranî (kurdî, farisî, pehlewî, hexamenişî, avestayî…) hatiye wergirtin. Di gelek ferhengan de li cihê “îranî” peyva “farisî” tê danîn. Ev di rewşa hin peyvan de rast e lê ne di hemûyan de. Gelek caran ne mimkin e mirov bê guman bizane ka peyv ji kîjan zimanê îranî hatiye wergirtin. Loma min peyva ”îranî” çêtir dît.

Carinan ji yekê zêdetir alternatîv hene ku peyv ji kîjan zimanî ye, hingê ew bo nimûne wiha hatiye diyarkirin: ’esker ji latînî yan îranî. Carinan jî erebî ew peyv ji zimanekî din wergirtiye lê wî zimanî bi xwe jî ji zimanekî din wergirtiye. Hingê ew bo nimûne wiha hatiye diyarkirin: beled ji yûnanî ji latînî.

Dengên taybet

‘ / عwek di navê ‘Elî de

ḥ / ح wek di navê Hesen de

ż / ذ di kurdî de nîne, ”z-ya fis”, bi inglîzî ”th” wek di peyva ”they” de

ś / ص  S-ya qelew wek di peyva “sed” de

ğ / غ X wek di navê Xefûr de

ț / ط T-ya qelew wek di peyva “teng” de

 

Erebî                          Ji                                Wateya peyvê di erebî de
 
A
Adem                                  îbranî                                  Adem
 
B
bab                                      akadî                                   derî, dergeh
babûr                                  îtalî                                     vapor, bapor, keştiyên hilmî
barûd                                  yûnanî                                 barût
bedrûm                               yûnanî                                 bindav, bodrûm
beled                                   yûnanî ji latînî                                          bajar
bel ğem                              yûnanî                                 belxem
belțe                                   sûmerî yan tirkî                  bivir
bendûre                              îtalî                                     bacansor, firingî, pamîdor
benefşe                               îranî                                    binefş
beqdûnis                             yûnanî                                 bexdenos, kerefs
beqşîş                                  îranî                                    bexşîş, bertîl
berîd                                   latînî                                   poste
berleman                            fransî                                  parleman, parlemento
bernamec                           îranî                                    bername
berqûq                                latînî                                   hilû(k – mêweyek)
beśame                               tirkî                                     dews, śop, śûn, muhr
bețariye                              inglîzî                                  baterî, pîl
bețațis                                 inglîzî                                  petat, kartol
beyțar                                 latînî                                   beytar, doktorê heywanan
billewr                                yûnanî                                 belûr, krîstal, şsûşe, cam
bițaqe                                 yûnanî                                 bilêt, tikêt
burc                                    yûnanî                                 birc
burğul                                 yûnanî                                 savar
burkan                                latînî                                    volkan
bûstan                                 îranî                                    bûstan
 
 
 
C
cam                                     îranî                                    cam, şûşe, perdaq
camûs                                 îranî                                    gamêş
cehennem                           îbranî                                  dûjeh, cehnem
cenne(t)                              îbranî                                  biheşt, cinet
cewder                                îranî                                    cewder, şilêl
cewher                                îranî                                    gewher
cewz                                    îranî                                    gûz
cezer                                   îranî                                    gêzer
cezme                                 tirkî                                     cezme, cîzme, gîzme (pêlav)
cin                                       latînî                                   cin, ecin, “yên ji me çêtir”
cinaye(t)                             îranî                                    cinayet, tawan, guneh
cins                                     yûnanî                                 cins, zayend; cûn, nijad
cisr                                      sûmerî                                pir (rêya di ser avê re)
cumruk                               latînî                                   gumrik, gumirk
cundî                                   îranî                                    leşker, esker, serbaz, sipa
cuğrafiye                            yûnanî                                 cografya, erdnasî
cûn                                      îranî                                    cûn, gon, reng, core, çeşît
 
 
D
dax                                      îranî                                    dax
defter                                  yûnanî                                 defter
derhem                               yûnanî                                 pare, pere, dirav; derhem
derz                                     îranî                                    derz
destûr                                 îranî                                    destûr, qanûna bingehîn
Dicle                                   sûmerî                                Dîcle, Ava Mezin, Ava Şîn
dîn                                       îranî                                    dîn, diyanet
dînar                                   latînî                                   dinar (pareyê hin dewlwetan)
dîwan                                  îranî                                    dîwan
dunum                                tirkî                                     donim (pîvaneke zeviyan e)
dûrbîn                                 îranî                                    dûrbîn
Ebdullah                              îbranî                                  Evdile
 
 
E
efendî                                 yûnanî                                 efendî, hêja, birêz
efyûn                                   yûnanî                                 efyon, opyûm
elîf                                      yûnanî                                 elîf, A
Ellah                                    îbranî                                  Xwedê
elmas                                  yûnanî                                 elmas
enbar                                  îranî                                    embar
erruz                                   yûnanî                                 birinc, riz
 
 
‘ / ع
‘enze                                   sûmerî                                bizin
‘esker                                  latînî yan îranî                                          leşker, esker, serbaz, sipa
 
 
F
fanûs                                   yûnanî                                 fanos
felsefe                                 yûnanî                                 felsefe, fîlozofî
fener                                   yûnanî                                 fener, fanos
feylesûf                               yûnanî                                 fîlozof, feylesof
feyrûz                                  îranî                                    fîroz, pîroze, turkuaz
fihris                                   îranî                                    fihrist, naverok
filfil                                     sanskrîtî                              filfil, bîber, îsot
film                                     inglîzî                                  film
fils                                       yûnanî                                 hûrde, fils (pareyê hûr)
fincan                                  îranî                                    fincan
findiq                                  yûnanî                                 findeq, bindeq
Firat                                    yûnanî                                 Firat (çem)
firawle                                îtalî                                     tûerd, tûfiringî, çîlek
fistiq                                    îranî                                    fisteq
fîrdews                                yûnanî ji îranî                                           biheşt
fulaż                                    îranî                                    pola, polat, pîla
funduq                                yûnanî                                 xan, hotêl
furn                                     îtalî                                     firin, firne
 
 
Ğ / غ
ğaz                                      fransî                                  gaz, xaz
ğiram                                  fransî                                  gram (wek kîlogram)
ğirbal                                  latînî                                   bêjing
 
 
H
hawun                                 îranî                                    hawin
hendese                              îranî                                    endaze, hendese
heykel                                 sûmerî                                peyker, pût, heykel, senem
 
 
Ḥ / ح
ḥûrî                                     îranî                                    horî, zeriyên biheştê
 
I / Î
Iblîs                                     yûnanî                                 Iblîs, Şeytan
Incîl                                     yûnanî                                 Incîl
iqlîm                                   yûnanî                                 iqlîm, navçe, dever; klîma, avûhewa
isfenc                                  yûnanî                                 îsfenc, sungêr, hewr, sponj
isment                                 latînî                                   çîmento
Ibrahîm                               îbranî                                  Birahîm
Isma’îl                                 îbranî                                  Simaîl
 
 
 
 
K
kehreba                              îranî                                    kehreba, elektrîk, ceyran
kemer                                 îranî                                    kemer
kenebe                                fransî                                  qenepe, sofa
kenz                                    îranî                                    gencîne, xezîne, kanza
kerefs                                  îranî                                    kerefs, bexdenos
kîlû                                      yûnanî                                 kilo (kilogram, kîlomtere)
kîmya                                  yûnanî                                 kîmya
kursî                                    sûmerî                                kursî
kurunc                                 yûnanî                                 kelemî
kuzbere                               sanskrîtî                              gijnîj
kûşk                                     îranî                                    koşk, seray
 
 
L
leğam                                 îtalî                                     mîn, mayîn (bombeya bin-erdî)
le’l                                       îranî                                    lale
leqleq                                  akadî                                   legleg
leymûn                                sanskrîtî                              lîmon, leymûn
libne                                    akadî                                   libin, blok
 
 
 
 
M
mecûs                                 îranî                                    mecûs, zerdeştî
mendîl                                latînî                                   destmal, mendîl, kefî
menzil                                 akadî                                   avahî, xanî mezel
mercan                               yûnanî                                 mercan, mircan
Merîx                                  latînî                                   Mars, Merîx (planetek)
merkez                                îbranî                                  navend, merkez
Mesîḥ                                  îbranî                                  Mesîh
mestûr                                yûnanî                                 nepenî, veşartî
meydan                               îranî                                    meydan
miğnețîs                              yûnanî                                 magnetîz
milyar                                 fransî ji yûnanî                    milyar
milyûn                                 fransî ji yûnanî                    milyon
muhr                                   îranî                                    muhr, mor
mewz                                  sanskrîtî                              mûz
mincel                                 sanskrîtî                              das, şalok
 
 
N
namûs                                 yûnanî                                 namûs, şeref
neccar                                 sûmerî                                necar, dartiraş
Nemsa                                slavî: Nemets = Almanya    Awistriya, Otrîş, Nemsa
nercis                                  îranî yan yûnanî                  nêrgiz
nîl                                        sanskrîtî                              heş (madeyê şîn)
nîlûfer                                 sanskrîtî                              nîlûfer
nîşan                                   îranî                                    nîşan
nusxe                                  akadî?                                 kopî, nisxe
 
 
 
Q
qalib                                    yûnanî                                 qalib
qanûn                                  yûnanî                                 qanûn
qefeś                                   yûnanî                                 rekeh, qefes
qelem                                 yûnanî                                 qelem, pênûs
qenae                                  sûmerî                                co, cobar
qend                                    sanskrîtî                              şekir, qend
qendîl                                  latînî                                   çira
qerenfîl                               yûnanî                                 qerenfîl, mêxik (gulek)
qern                                    yûnanî                                 serdem, sedsal
qeśr                                     latînî                                   qesr, seray, koşk
qeyśer                                 latînî                                   qeyser, paşayê hin welatan
qiț                                       latînî                                   kitik, pisîk, pişîk
qunbule                               îranî                                    qumbere
quțb                                    îbranî                                  qutb, cemser
 
 
R
reff                                      îranî                                    ref, refik
rețl                                      yûnanî                                 lître, ritil
rizq                                      îranî                                    rizq, qûtê rojane
rumḥ                                   yûnanî                                 rim, rum
 
 
S
sebet                                   îranî                                    sepet, zembîl, selik
sebt                                     îbranî                                  şemî
semt                                    latînî                                   semt, tax
sențûr                                 yûnanî                                 sentûr (amûreke muzîkê)
seray                                   îranî                                    seray
serw                                    îranî                                    serw, selwe (darek)
sicl                                      latînî                                   sicil, tomar, qeyd
siḥr                                      akadî                                   sihir, cadûbazî
sime                                    yûnanî                                 sîma, nîşan
sirac                                    îranî                                    çira, ronahî
sîcare                                  inglîzî                                  cigare
 
 
Ś / ص
śabûn                                  fransî                                  sabûn
śendûq                                yûnanî                                 sindoq, sendox
śetl                                      latînî                                   setil, zerik, dewlik (amanek)
śifir                                     sanskrîtî                              sifir, 0
śiraț                                    latînî                                   rê (bi taybetî “sirat= biheşt û dûjehê”)
śufr                                     sûmerî                                sifir, mis, baqir (madenek)
 
 
Ş
şal                                       îranî                                    şal
şerşef                                  îranî                                    çarşev, perde
şețrenc                                sanskrîtî                              kiş, şetrenc
sukker                                 sanskrîtî                              şekir
şûrbe                                   îranî                                    şorbe
 
T
tabût                                   îbranî                                  tabût
tac                                       îranî                                    tac
temmûz                              sûmerî                                tîrmeh, temûz
teneke                                 îranî                                    teneke
tennûr                                 sûmerî                                tenûr, tendûr
text                                     îranî                                    text
texte                                   îranî                                    texte, dep
 
 
Ț / ط
țazic                                    îranî                                    taze, teze
țas                                       îranî                                    tas, tirar
țawule                                 îtalî                                     tablo
țawus                                  yûnanî                                 tawis (teyr)
țebence                               îranî                                    demance
țebeşîr                                sanskrîtî                              tebeşîr
țemațe                                inglîzî ji spanî                                           bacansor, firingî, pamîdor
țerz                                     îranî                                    awa, şêwe, terz
țilesm                                  yûnanî                                 niviştî, tilism
țurşî                                    îranî                                    tirşî
 
 
 
U
ufq, ufuq                             îbranî                                  aso, ufuq
uqyanûs                               yûnanî                                 okyanos (berhên mezin)
usquf                                   yûnanî                                 metran
ustaż                                   îranî                                    hosta, hoste; mamosta; profesor
ûqiye                                   latînî                                   oqî, ons (pîvanek)
 
 
W
weḥşî                                  îranî                                    wehşî
werd                                   îranî                                    gul
wezîr                                   îranî                                    wezîr, gizîr
wezz                                    sûmerî                                qaz
 
X
xencer                                 îranî                                    xencer
xendeq                                îranî                                    xendek, kend
xerîte                                  yûnanî                                 xerîte, nexşe
xiyar                                    îranî                                    xiyar
 
Y
yaqe                                    tirkî                                     pistok, berstok
yaqût                                   yûnanî                                 yaqût
yasemîn                              îranî                                    yasemîn
yawir                                   îranî                                    yawir, alîkar, berdestk
yûnan                                  yûnanî                                 yûnan(î)
 
 
Z
zenbeq                                îranî                                    sosin, zembeq
zencefîl                               sanskrîtî                              zencefîl
zencî                                   îranî                                    zencî, mirovên reş
zendîq                                 îranî                                    zendîq
zewc                                    yûnanî                                 mêr, şû
zincîr                                   îranî                                    zincîr
zumurrud                            yûnanî                                 zimrûd
 
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